Rephasing Invariance and Permutation Symmetry

Project: National Science and Technology CouncilNational Science and Technology Council Academic Grants

Project Details


In the standard model, the permutation symmetry among the three generations of fundamental fermions is usually regarded to be broken by the Higgs couplings. The symmetry may be restored if we include the mass matrix parameters as physical variables which transform appropriately under the symmetry operation. Known relations between these variables, such as the renormalization group equations, as well as formulas for neutrino oscillations (in vacuum and in matter), may be shown to be covariant tensor equations under the permutation symmetry group. On the other hand, with some modifications, the arguments for rephasing invariance may be used to establish permutation symmetry for the standard model.

Project IDs

Project ID:PA10907-1626
External Project ID:MOST109-2112-M182-001
Effective start/end date01/08/2031/07/21


  • rephasing invariance
  • permutation symmetry
  • renormalization group equation
  • neutrino oscillation formulation


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