A Simple Scoring Model for Evaluation of Concomitant Vascular Injuries in Patients with Lower Extremity Open Fractures

Chun Lin Su, Chung Chen Hsu, Chien Hung Liao, Chi Hsun Hsieh, Chi Tung Cheng, Chih Yuan Fu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis and management of concomitant vascular injuries is usually needed for the management of lower extremity open fractures. In the current study, a prediction model and simplified scoring system of vascular injuries were developed for the primary evaluation of patients with lower extremity open fractures.

METHODS: Patients with lower extremity open fractures were retrospectively reviewed from 2017 to 2020. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate independent risk factors for concomitant vascular injuries in these patients using data collected from 2017 through 2019 and a prediction scoring model was created accordingly. Model performance was validated with data from 2020.

RESULTS: In total, 949 patients with lower extremity open fractures (development cohort, 705 patients, 2017 through 2019; validation cohort, 244 patients, 2020) were enrolled. Concomitant vascular injuries occurred in 44 patients in the development cohort (6.2%). Three clinical variables were identified for a prediction scoring model with weighted points, including hard or soft vascular signs (3 points), segmental fractures (2 points), and degloving soft-tissue injury (1 point). The model showed good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.928), calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.661), and precision (Brier score, 0.041). Subsequent management regarding different aspects (observation only, further imaging study, or direct surgical exploration) can thus be decided. The model also demonstrated good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.949), good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.174), and good precision (Brier score, 0.042) in the validation cohort.

CONCLUSION: This model may guide the subsequent management of vascular injuries associated with lower extremity open fractures.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1092
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume151
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 01 05 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Fractures, Open/complications
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vascular System Injuries/diagnosis
  • Leg Injuries
  • Risk Factors
  • Lower Extremity

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