Adaptive data embedding using VQ and clustering

Yi Hui Chen, Chin Chen Chang, Chia Chen Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

15 Scopus citations


Recently, embedding large amounts of secret data into an image with low distortion has become an important research issue in data hiding schemes, even though reversibility cannot be achieved. Because Shie et al. 's data hiding scheme adoptively adjusts thresholds to offer a huge hiding capacity at the cost of large and uncontrolled image distortion, we apply VQ and clustering techniques to achieve the same objective while maintaining stable and acceptable image quality of the stego-images. Experimental results confirm that our proposed scheme provides the same hiding capacity as done by Shie et al. does, and has better performance in image quality of the stego-image. Furthermore, on average, the PSNR of our proposed scheme is about 3 dB larger than with either Du and Hsu's or Shie et al. 's scheme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1471-1485
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control
Issue number6 A
StatePublished - 12 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Clustering
  • Data embedding
  • Hiding capacity
  • VQ


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