Alternative activation of macrophages: Concepts and prospects

Siamon Gordon*, Laura Helming, Fernando O. Martinez Estrada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Macrophages of the body represent a widely dispersed, versatile, and highly responsive homeostatic and defense system. They contribute to innate as well as adaptive immunity to infection, mediating trophic as well as injurious interactions with their local and systemic environment. The concept of macrophage activation has evolved over recent decades, from relatively simple paradigms to bewildering complexity. This chapter will review the background to present understanding of alternative activation of macrophages, consider its relevance to health and disease, and suggest questions for future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMacrophages
Subtitle of host publicationBiology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9781493913114
ISBN (Print)1493913107, 9781493913107
StatePublished - 01 05 2014
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights reserved.


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