Association between acrylamide metabolites and cardiovascular risk in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease

Chien Ning Hsu, Chih Yao Hou, Pei Chen Lu, Guo Ping Chang-Chien, Sufan Lin, You Lin Tain*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

17 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been associated with increased CVD in CKD patients. Children tend to have more exposure to acrylamide, one of the most common toxins in food. We aimed to determine whether urinary levels of acrylamide metabolites N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine (GAMA) are associated with CV risk markers in children with CKD. Data on 112 children and adolescents ages three to 18 years old with CKD stage G1–G4 are reported. We observed that 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) abnormalities were greater, and left ventricular (LV) mass and ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) were higher in children with CKD stage G2–G4 versus G1. Patients with CKD stage G2–G4 had a lower urinary acrylamide level, but a higher AAMA-to-GAMA ratio than those with CKD stage G1. Urinary acrylamide level was negatively associated with high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) load on 24 h ABPM. Lower urinary levels of acrylamide, AAMA, and GAMA were correlated with LV mass. Additionally, GAMA are superior to AAMA related to NO-related parameters, namely citrulline and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). This study suggests that determinations of urinary acrylamide level and its metabolites in the early stages of pediatric CKD may identify patients at risk of CVD. Further studies should clarify mechanisms underlying acrylamide exposure to define the treatment for protection against CVD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5855
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number16
StatePublished - 02 08 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Acrylamide
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Children
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Citrulline
  • Hypertension
  • Nitric oxide
  • Symmetric dimethylarginine


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