Bimetallic Pd-Sn Catalytic Electrodes from Deep Eutectic Solvents for Selective Nitrate Reduction Toward Nitrogen

Wei Fan Kuan, Ching Lung Chen, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmad, Chia Hsun Hsieh, Hao Ming Chen*, Jenn Fang Su*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations


Nitrate is one of the most widespread water contaminants globally. Nitrate levels in groundwater and surface water can rise to unhealthy levels as a result of nitrogen fertilizer runoff from lawns and farms. This research aims to selectively convert nitrate to gaseous nitrogen using Palladium-Tin (Pd-Sn) bimetallic electrodes electrodeposited on stainless-steel (SS). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction are used to analyze the composition, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the electrodes. The XRD analysis reveals that the Pd-Sn/SS electrode has a crystalline nature when a Pd molar ratio >0.5 while an amorphous phase is detected over a Pd molar ratio (≤0.5). The electrochemical nitrate reduction is carried out in a 0.1 M HClO4 / 8 mM NaNO3 solution for 5 h using electrodes prepared in deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The Pd0.93Sn0.07/SS electrode shows the best catalytic performance in terms of high nitrate conversion of 97%, N2 selectivity of 88%, and N2 yield of 86% compared to counter electrodes. These findings demonstrate a considerable impact of the electrode preparation process on nitrogen conversion, selectivity, and yield.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2300425
JournalAdvanced Sustainable Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - 03 2024

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  • deep eutectic solvents
  • human health
  • nitrate reduction
  • nitrogen
  • water treatments


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