Biomedical Evaluation of Early Chronic Kidney Disease in the Air Force: Building a Predictive Model from the Taiwan Military Health Service

Po Jen Hsiao, Ruei Lin Wang, Fu Kang Hu, Fu Ru Tsai, Chih Chien Chiu, Wen Fang Chiang, Kun Lin Wu, Yuan Kuei Li, Jenq Shyong Chan, Chi Ming Chu, Chi Wen Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Objective: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide. The increasing prevalence and incidence of CKD have contributed to the critical problem of high medical costs. Due to stressful environments, aircrew members may have a high risk of renal dysfunction. A better strategy to prevent CKD progression in Air Force personnel would be to diagnosis CKD at an early stage. Since few studies have been conducted in Taiwan to examine the long-term trends in early CKD in Air Force aircrew members, this study is highly important. We investigated the prevalence of CKD and established a predictive model of disease variation among aircrew members. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we included all subjects who had received physical examinations at a military hospital from 2004 to 2010 and who could be tracked for four years. The Abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Formula (aMDRD) was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and was combined with the National Kidney Foundation/ Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) to identify CKD patients. Results: A total of 212 aircrew members were assessed. The results showed that the prevalence of CKD was 3.8%, 9.4%, 9.0%, and 9.4% in each of the four years. According to the logistic regression analysis, abnormal urobilinogen levels, ketones, and white blood cell (WBC) counts in urine and a positive urine occult blood test increased the risk of CKD. A positive urine occult blood test can be used to predict the future risk of CKD. Moreover, the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that a greater risk of CKD with increased examination time, age and seniority had a negative effect. In conclusion, abnormal urobilinogen levels, ketones, and urine WBC counts in urine as well as a positive urine occult blood test might serve as independent predictors for CKD. Conclusion: In the future, we can focus not only on annual physical examinations but also on simple and accurate examinations, such as urine occult blood testing, to determine the risk of CKD and prevent its progression in our aircrew members.

Original languageEnglish
Article number231
Issue number3
StatePublished - 28 02 2024

Bibliographical note

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© 2024 by the authors.


  • Air Force
  • chronic kidney disease
  • military health
  • predictive model


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