Biophysical modulation of the mitochondrial metabolism and redox in bone homeostasis and osteoporosis: How biophysics converts into bioenergetics

Feng Sheng Wang, Re Wen Wu, Yu Shan Chen, Jih Yang Ko, Holger Jahr, Wei Shiung Lian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Bone-forming cells build mineralized microstructure and couple with bone-resorbing cells, harmonizing bone mineral acquisition, and remodeling to maintain bone mass homeostasis. Mitochondrial glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways together with ROS generation meet the energy requirement for bone-forming cell growth and differentiation, respectively. Moder-ate mechanical stimulations, such as weight loading, physical activity, ultrasound, vibration, and electromagnetic field stimulation, etc., are advantageous to bone-forming cell activity, promoting bone anabolism to compromise osteoporosis development. A plethora of molecules, including ion channels, integrins, focal adhesion kinases, and myokines, are mechanosensitive and transduce mechanical stimuli into intercellular signaling, regulating growth, mineralized extracellular matrix biosynthesis, and resorption. Mechanical stimulation changes mitochondrial respiration, biogenesis, dynamics, calcium influx, and redox, whereas mechanical disuse induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which aggravates bone-forming cell apoptosis, senescence, and dysfunction. The control of the mitochondrial biogenesis activator PGC-1α by NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuins or myokine FNDC/irisin or repression of oxidative stress by mitochondrial antioxidant Nrf2 modulates the biophysical stimulation for the promotion of bone integrity. This review sheds light onto the roles of mechanosensitive signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, and antioxidants in mediating the anabolic effects of biophysical stimulation to bone tissue and highlights the remedial potential of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators for osteoporosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1394
Issue number9
StatePublished - 09 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Biophysical stimulation
  • Fndc5
  • Irisin
  • Mechanosensitive
  • Mitochondria biogenesis
  • Nrf2
  • Osteoblasts
  • Osteoporosis
  • PGC-1α
  • Sirt3


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