Bi2O2Se-Based Bimode Noise Generator for the Application of Generative Adversarial Networks

Bo Liu*, Xing Yi Zheng, Dharmendra Verma, Yudi Zhao, Hanyuan Liang, Lain Jong Li, Jenhui Chen, Chao Sung Lai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


In the emerging technology, the generative aversive networks (GANs), randomness, and unpredictability of inputting noises are the keys to the uniqueness, diversity, robustness, and security of the generated images. Compared with deterministic software-based noise generation, hardware-based noise generation introduces physical entropy sources, such as electronic and photonic noises, to add unpredictability. In this study, bimode Bi2O2Se-based noise generators have been demonstrated for the application of GANs. Harnessing its ultrahigh carrier mobility, excellent air stability, marvelous optoelectronic performance, as well as the unique surface resistive switching effect and defect locations in the energy diagram, Bi2O2Se provides a good material platform to easily integrate with multiple device architectures for generating noises in different physical sources. The noise of the black current mode in a photodetector architecture and the random telegraph noise in a memristor mode were measured, characterized, compared, and analyzed. A method of Markov chain equipped with K-means clustering was carried out to calculate the discrete noise states and the transition probability matrix between them. To evaluate the generated properties of the GANs based on the hardware noise source, the inception score and Fréchet inception distance were evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49478-49486
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number42
StatePublished - 25 10 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.


  • BiOSe
  • black current
  • generative adversarial network
  • noise generator
  • random telegraph noise


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