Brain Protective Effect of Resveratrol via Ameliorating Interleukin-1β-Induced MMP-9-Mediated Disruption of ZO-1 Arranged Integrity

Ming Ming Tsai, Jiun Liang Chen, Tsong Hai Lee, Hsiuming Liu, Velayuthaprabhu Shanmugam, Hsi Lung Hsieh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

7 Scopus citations


In the central nervous system (CNS), the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is induced by several factors and contributes to CNS disorders, including inflammation and neurodegeneration. Thus, the upregulation of MMP-9 has been considered to be an indicator of inflammation. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an important proinflammatory cytokine which can induce various inflammatory factors, such as MMP-9, in many inflammatory disorders. Several phytochemicals are believed to reduce the risk of several inflammatory disorders, including the CNS diseases. Among them, the resveratrol, a principal phenolic compound of the grape, blueberry, and mulberry peels and Cassia plants, has been shown to possess several medicinal properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor function. Herein, we used mouse-brain microvascular endothelial cells (bMECs) to demonstrate the signaling mechanisms of IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression via zymographic, RT-PCR, Western blot, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, immunofluorescence stain, and promoter reporter analyses. Then we evaluated the effects of resveratrol on IL-1β-induced MMP-9 expression in bMECs and its mechanism of action. We first demonstrated that IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression in bMECs. Subsequently, IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression via ROS-mediated c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR, and then activation of the ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, we determined that IL-1β-induced upregulation of MMP-9 may cause the disruption of the arranged integrity of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), but this could be inhibited by resveratrol. These data indicated that resveratrol may have antioxidative and brain-protective activities by reducing these related pathways of ROS-mediated MMP-9 expression and tight junction disruption in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1270
Issue number6
StatePublished - 06 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • anti-inflammation
  • brain microvascular endothelial cells
  • brain protection
  • matrix metalloproteinase-9
  • reactive oxygen species
  • resveratrol


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