Cement leakage causes potential thermal injury in vertebroplasty.

Po-Liang Lai*, Ching Lung Tai, Lih-Huei Chen, Nai Yuan Nien

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

45 Scopus citations

Abstract

Percutaneous vertebroplasty by injecting PMMA bone cement into the fractured vertebrae has been widely accepted in treatment of spinal compression fracture. However, the exothermic polymerization of bone cement may cause osseous or neural tissue injury. This study is thus designed to evaluate the potential risk of thermal damage in percutaneous vertebroplasty. Twelve porcine vertebrae were immersed in 37°C saline for the experiment. In the first stage of the study, vertebroplasty without cement leakage (control group, n = 6) was simulated. The anterior cortex, foramen, posterior cortex and the center of the vertebral body were selected for temperature measurement. Parameters including peak temperature and duration above 45°C were recorded. In the second stage, a model (n = 6) simulating bone cement leaking into the spinal canal was designed. The methods for temperature measurement were identical to those used in the first stage. In Stage 1 of the study (vertebroplasty of the porcine vertebral body in the absence of cement leakage), the average maximal temperature at the anterior cortex was 42.4 ± 2.2°C; at the neural foramen 39.5 ± 2.1°C; at the posterior cortex 40.0 ± 2.5°C and at the vertebral center, 68.1 ± 3.4°C. The average time interval above 45°C was 0 seconds at the anterior cortex; at the neural foramen, 0 seconds; at the posterior cortex, 0 seconds and at the vertebral center, 223 seconds. Thus, except at the core of the bone cement, temperatures around the vertebral body did not exceed 45°C. In Stage 2 of the study (cement leakage model), the average maximal temperature at the anterior cortex was 42.7 ± 2.4°C; at the neural foramen, 41.1 ± 0.4°C; at the posterior cortex, 59.1 ± 7.6°C and at the vertebral center, 77.3 ± 5.7°C. The average time interval above 45°C at the anterior cortex was 0 seconds; at the neural foramen, 0 seconds; at the posterior cortex, 329.3 seconds and at the vertebral center, 393.2 seconds. Based on these results, temperatures exceeded 45°C at the posterior cortex and at the vertebral center. The results indicated that, for bone cement confined within the vertebra, curing temperatures do not directly cause thermal injury to the nearby soft tissue. If bone cement leaks into the spinal canal, the exothermic reaction at the posterior cortex might result in thermal injury to the neural tissue.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116
Pages (from-to)116
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

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