Comparing the Clinical Efficacy of Coil Embolization in GDA Stump versus Common Hepatic Artery in Postoperative Hemorrhage after Pancreatoduodenectomy

Chia Chien Wu, Huan Wu Chen, Ker En Lee, Yon Cheong Wong, Yi Kang Ku*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy is an uncommon but fatal complication. In this retrospective study, the different treatment modalities and outcomes for treating post-pancreaticoduodenectomy hemorrhage are analyzed.

METHODS: Our hospital imaging database was queried to identify patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy during the period of 2004-2019. The patients were retrospectively split into three groups, according to their treatment: conservative treatment without embolization (group A: A1, negative angiography; A2, positive angiography), hepatic artery sacrifice/embolization (group B: B1, complete; B2, incomplete), and gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump embolization (group C).

RESULTS: There were 24 patients who received angiography or transarterial embolization (TAE) treatment 37 times (cases). In group A, high re-bleeding rates (60%, 6/10 cases) were observed, with 50% (4/8 cases) for subgroup A1 and 100% (2/2 cases) for subgroup A2. In group B, the re-bleeding rates were lowest (21.1%, 4/19 cases) with 0% (0/16 cases) for subgroup B1 and 100% (4/4 cases) for subgroup B2. The rate of post-TAE complications (such as hepatic failure, infarct, and/or abscess) in group B was not low (35.3%, 6/16 patients), especially in patients with underlying liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis and post-hepatectomy (100% (3/3 patients), vs. 23.1% (3/13 patients); p = 0.036, p < 0.05). The highest rate of re-bleeding (62.5%, 5/8 cases) was observed for group C. There was a significant difference in the re-bleeding rates of subgroup B1 and group C ( p = 0.00017). The more iterations of angiography, the higher the mortality rate (18.2% (2/11 patients), <3 times vs. 60% (3/5 patients), ≥3 times; p = 0.245).

CONCLUSIONS: The complete sacrifice of the hepatic artery is an effective first-line treatment for pseudoaneurysm or for the rupture of the GDA stump after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Hepatic complications are not uncommon and are highly associated with underlying liver disease. Conservative treatment, the selective embolization of the GDA stump, and incomplete hepatic artery embolization do not provide enduring treatment effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number264
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 31 01 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • GDA stump
  • hepatic artery sacrifice
  • pancreatoduodenectomy
  • postoperative hemorrhage


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