Comparison of BODE and ADO Indices in Predicting COPD-Related Medical Costs

Chin Ling Li, Hui Chuan Chang, Ching Wan Tseng, Yuh Chyn Tsai, Jui Fang Liu, Meng Lin Tsai, Meng Chih Lin, Shih Feng Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Background and Objectives:The ADO (age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction) and BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) indices are often used to evaluate the prognoses for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD); however, an index suitable for predicting medical costs has yet to be developed. Materials and Methods: We investigated the BODE and ADO indices to predict medical costs and compare their predictive power. A total of 396 patients with COPD were retrospectively enrolled. Results: For hospitalization frequencies, BODE was R2 = 0.093 (p < 0.001), and ADO was R2 = 0.065 (p < 0.001); for hospitalization days, BODE was R2 = 0.128 (p < 0.001), and ADO was R2 = 0.071 (p < 0.001); for hospitalization expenses, BODE was R2 = 0.020 (p = 0.047), and ADO was R2 = 0.012 (p = 0.179). BODE and ADO did not differ significantly in the numbers of outpatient visits (BODE, R2 = 0.012, p = 0.179; ADO, R2 = 0.017, p = 0.082); outpatient medical expenses (BODE, R2 = 0.012, p = 0.208; ADO, R2 = 0.008, p = 0.364); and total medical costs (BODE, R2 = 0.018, p = 0.072; ADO, R2 = 0.016, p = 0.098). In conclusion, BODE and ADO indices were correlated with hospitalization frequency and hospitalization days. However, the BODE index exhibits slightly better predictive accuracy than the ADO index in these items.

Original languageEnglish
Article number577
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Issue number3
StatePublished - 15 03 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • ADO index
  • BODE index
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • medical cost
  • prediction
  • Body Mass Index
  • Dyspnea/etiology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Humans
  • Lung
  • Health Care Costs
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/economics
  • Cohort Studies


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