Comparison of portal and capsular microscopic vascular invasion in the outcomes of early HCC after curative resection

Ding-Sen Huang, Ting-Ting Liu, Wei-Ting Lu, Chih-Chi Wang, Chih-Che Lin, Chee-Chen Yong, Kuang-Den Chen, Yueh-Wei Liu, Yuan-Hung Kuo, Yi-Hao Yen, Tsung-Hui Hu, Ming-Chao Tsai

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Microscopic vascular invasion (MVI) is a strong risk factor associated with tumor recurrence and poor overall survival (OS) among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after resection. Two types of MVI are identified: portal vein and capsular vein invasion. However, little is known about the impact of different types of MVI on HCC recurrence. The present study aimed to compare HCC recurrence and OS between the portal vein and capsule vein MVI. Patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0 or A HCC who underwent primary resection between January 2001 and June 2016 were consecutively recruited. Factors that influenced OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 857 eligible patients, 327 (38.2%) had MVI, and 530 (61.8%) were without MVI. Of the 327 patients with MVI, 85 (26.0%) were with portal vein, 178 (54.4%) with capsular vein, and 64 (19.6%) with both-MVI type. Patients with both-MVI type suffered from a higher proportion of BCLC stage A (P < 0.001), capsular invasion (P = 0.002), and satellite nodules (P < 0.001). Both-MVI type is an independent risk factor for HCC recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.69; 95% CI, 1.22-2.36, P = 0.002) and mortality (HR: 2.29; 95% CI, 1.59-3.29, P < 0.001) compared with non-MVI. We further found that both-MVI type was significantly associated with a higher risk of extrahepatic recurrence (EHR) (HR: 8.74; 95% CI, 2.38-32.03, P = 0.001). Among HCC patients after curative resection, concurrent portal and capsular MVI is a risk factor for HCC recurrence, especially for EHR, in comparison with non-MVI or only portal or capsular MVI alone.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2659-2672
JournalAmerican Journal of Cancer Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2022


  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • microscopic vascular invasion
  • overall survival


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