Computer-aided planning in orthognathic surgery: A comparative study with the establishment of burstone analysis-derived 3D norms

Cheng Ting Ho, Rafael Denadai, Hsin Chih Lai, Lun Jou Lo, Hsiu Hsia Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

8 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided simulation has revolutionized orthognathic surgery treatment, but scarce 3D cephalometric norms have been defined to date. The purposes of this study were to (1) establish a normative database of 3D Burstone cephalometric measurements for adult male and female Chinese in Taiwan, (2) compare this 3D norm dataset with the two-dimensional (2D) Burstone norms from Caucasian and Singaporean Chinese populations, and (3) apply these 3D norms to assess the outcome of a computer-aided simulation of orthognathic surgery. Three-dimensional Burstone cephalometric analysis was performed on 3D digital craniofacial image models generated from cone-beam computed tomography datasets of 60 adult Taiwanese Chinese individuals with normal occlusion and balanced facial profile. Three-dimensional Burstone analysis was performed on 3D image datasets from patients with skeletal Class III pattern (n = 30) with prior computer-aided simulation. Three-dimensional Burstone cephalometric measurements showed that Taiwanese Chinese males had significantly (p < 0.05) larger anterior and posterior facial heights, maxillary length, and mandibular ramus height than females, with no significant (p > 0.05) difference for facial soft-tissue parameters. The 3D norm dataset revealed Taiwanese Chinese-specific facial characteristics, with Taiwanese presenting (p < 0.05) a more convex profile, protrusive maxillary apical bases, protruding mandible, protruding upper and lower lips, and a shorter maxillary length and lower facial height than Caucasians. Taiwanese had significantly (p < 0.05) larger maxillary projection, vertical height ratio, lower face throat angle, nasolabial angle, and upper lip protrusion than Singaporean Chinese. No significant (p > 0.05) difference was observed between 3D norms and computer-aided simulation-derived 3D patient images for horizontal skeletal, vertical skeletal, and dental measurements, with the exception of two dental parameters (p < 0.05). This study contributes to literature by providing gender-and ethnic-specific 3D Burstone cephalometric norms, which can assist in the multidisciplinary-based delivery of orthodontic surgical care for Taiwanese Chinese individuals worldwide, including orthodontic management, computer-assisted simulation, and outcome assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2106
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - 12 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Burstone analysis
  • Computer-aided simulation
  • Orthognathic surgery
  • Simulation
  • Three-dimensional norms
  • Two-dimensional norms


Dive into the research topics of 'Computer-aided planning in orthognathic surgery: A comparative study with the establishment of burstone analysis-derived 3D norms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this