Conceptualisation and Development of a values-based scale of emergency physicians’ professional identities

Yu Che Chang, Nothando Sithulile Nkambule, Xaviera Xiao, Lynn Valerie Monrouxe, Hsu Min Tseng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Physicians’ values about what constitute their professional identities are integral in understanding how they ascribe meaning to their practice. However, there is no general consensus on the conceptualization and measurement of physicians’ professional identities. This study developed and validated a values-based scale for measuring physicians’ professional identities. Methods: A hybrid research method was used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. We employed literature review, semi-structured interview, Q-sorting exercise to examine the conceptualization of emergency physicians’ professional identities and to initially develop a 40-item scale. A panel of five experts assessed the scale’s content validity. Using 150 emergency physicians as our sample, we conducted Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) to test the fit of our hypothesised four-factor model based on our preliminary findings. Results: Initial CFA suggested revisions to the model. Following theoretical assumptions and modification indices, the model was revised and adjusted to a four-factor 20 item Emergency Physicians Professional Identities Value Scale (EPPIVS) with acceptable fit statistics χ2 = 389.38, df = 164, Normed χ2 = 2.374, GFI = 0.788, CFI = 0.862, RMSEA = 0.096. The Cronbach’s alpha, McDonald’s Omega reliability and composite reliability of the subscales ranged from α: 0.748 to 0.868, Omega: 0.759 to 0.868 and CR: 0.748 to 0.851, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the EPPIVS is a valid and reliable scale for measuring physicians’ professional identities. Further research on the sensitivity of this instrument to important changes over career progression in emergency medicine is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article number400
Pages (from-to)400
JournalBMC Medical Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - 02 06 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023. The Author(s).


  • Emergency Physicians
  • Professional identities
  • Scale development
  • Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Physicians
  • Humans
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Psychometrics
  • Concept Formation


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