Consensus-Based Secondary Frequency and Voltage Droop Control of Virtual Synchronous Generators for Isolated AC Micro-Grids

Lin Yu Lu, Chia Chi Chu

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

180 Scopus citations


As the penetration of renewable energy sources is increasing in the AC micro-grid, the stability of the closed-loop system has raised a major concern since conventional distributed interface converters (DICs) used in the AC micro-grid do not have a rotating mass, and hence low inertia. High penetration of DIC-based micro-grid may result in poor frequency and voltage response during large disturbance. In order to overcome this difficulty, the virtual synchronous generator (VSGs) was proposed recently in which the DIC mimics conventional synchronous generators (SGs) by designing proper parameters of the SG into each local droop control mechanism of the DIC. Meanwhile, due to the recent advances of distributed control, the concept of consensus-based control can be applied to study this droop control problem of VSGs. One important feature of this consensus-based control is that it can be implemented on each local DIC with communications among their neighboring DICs. In contrast to most existing secondary control schemes, no central controller is required. Under this framework, if DICs are redesigned as VSGs, the frequency and voltage of each DIC can be restored to their pre-specified values obtained from the steady-state analysis. In addition, the proper real and reactive power sharing still can be achieved according to the nominal rating of each DIC. The stability of the closed-loop system is ensured by the transient energy function under certain mild conditions. Numerical experiments of a 14-bus/6-DIC micro-grid system on real-time simulators are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7182801
Pages (from-to)443-455
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - 09 2015
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 IEEE.


  • Consensus algorithm
  • distributed interface converters (DICs)
  • droop control
  • micro-grid (MG)
  • transient energy function (TEF)
  • virtual synchronous generator (VSG)


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