Convergent angles of a tapered implant referred from the root profile of premolars

Chung Chieh Chang, Alex Hong, Chih Chun Mei, Yi Fang Huang, Heng Liang Liu, I. Ping Lin*, Hsiang Hsi Hong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Background/purpose: Limited studies have discussed the convergent profiles regarding tapered implants based on biological considerations. This study analyzed the convergent angles (CAs) of premolar roots and imitated a tapered implant according to the anatomy of tooth roots. Materials and methods: A total of 60 single-rooted premolars were explored by micro-computed tomography. Every individual root was divided into 10 segments corono-apically, and the roots’ buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) CAs were measured by sections. To mimic a dental implant, the irregular shape of examined root cross-sections was transformed into a circular shape with equal areas. A biomimetic dental implant (BDI) was reconstructed and its CAs were compared with those of the natural roots’ BL and MD at the examined levels and overall estimation. Results: In general, the maxillary and mandibular premolars demonstrated comparable CA patterns. However, significantly different CA patterns of BL, MD, and BDI were developed for both the maxillary and mandibular roots at the examined levels. The BL's CAs were greater than those CAs measured from the BDI and MD aspects, particularly for the sections at the middle and apical thirds of the roots. For overall CAs, the BDI's CAs were comparable with the average CAs of the BL and MD for both premolar groups. Conclusion: Instead of a cylindrical configuration, the BDI prototype demonstrated a tapered model with a continuous slope. The average CA of BDI was 14°–24°, serving as a biological reference for future tapered implant design and research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)264-271
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Dental Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - 01 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2022 Association for Dental Sciences of the Republic of China. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.


  • Anatomy
  • Biomimetics
  • Dental implants
  • Tooth root
  • X-ray microtomography


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