Critical ischemia time, perfusion, and drainage function of vascularized lymph nodes

Chin Yu Yang, Olivia A. Ho, Ming Huei Cheng, Hui Yi Hsiao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Vascularized lymph node transfer is a promising surgical treatment for lymphedema. This study investigated the effect of ischemia on the lymphatic drainage efficiency of vascularized lymph node flaps and the critical ischemia time of lymph nodes. Methods: Twenty-four lymph nodes containing groin flaps in 12 Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected. Clamping of the vascular pedicle was performed for 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, or 7 hours; then, each was allowed to reperfuse by means of the vascular pedicle for 1 hour. Perfusion and ischemic changes were assessed using indocyanine green lymphography; laser Doppler flowmetry; and histologic studies with associated lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, CD68, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end-labeling, and glutathione assay stains. Results: The mean latency period of the groin lymph node flaps was 247 ± 67, 83 ± 15, 72 ± 42, 30 ± 18, and 245 ± 85 seconds in the 0-, 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-hour groups, respectively. Perfusion detected by laser Doppler was 85.2 ± 14.5, 87.2 ± 36.7, 129.8 ± 33.7, 140.4 ± 148.5, 156.1 ± 91.4, and 41.2 ± 34.8 perfusion units at ischemia times of 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 hours, respectively. Cell damage measured by glutathione was 46.8 ± 10.2, 67.7 ± 14.2, 62.8 ± 15.4, 126.6 ± 5.9, 259.0 ± 70.3, and 109.1 ± 27.5 at ischemia times of 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 hours, respectively. Histologically, as ischemia time increased, hemorrhage and congestion became more severe. Conclusions: The critical ischemia time of vascularized lymph nodes is 5 hours in the rodent animal model, verified by indocyanine green lymphatic fluid uptake, laser Doppler perfusion, and histologic assessments. Interestingly, lymphatic drainage and perfusion of vascularized lymph nodes were improved with an increased ischemia time before the critical 5 hours was reached.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)688-697
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume142
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 09 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.

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