Determinants of Employment Outcome for the People with Schizophrenia Using the WHODAS 2.0

Shu Jen Lu, Tsan Hon Liou, Chia Feng Yen, Feng Hang Chang, Yen Ling Chen, Reuben Escorpizo, David R. Strauser, Ay Woan Pan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

16 Scopus citations


Purpose Since the vocational outcomes of people with schizophrenia should be viewed in a holistic way, the second edition of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) might provide an evaluation regarding employment potential. To determine whether the WHODAS 2.0 scores can be used to predict employment status, we examined the probabilistic cut-off values of the scores and analyzed the relationship between work status and demographic characteristics. Methods We selected 31,793 people aged between 18 and 65 with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from the disability evaluation database in Taiwan and separated them into two groups based on employment status (employed and unemployed). We used logistic regression to explore the association between employment and demographic characteristics. Moreover, we conducted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine the cut-off point to assist in determining employment potential based on the WHODAS 2.0 score. Results Among the 31,793 participants, 3367 were employed and 18,801 were unemployed. The unemployed participants accounted for a higher percentage of disability in each domain of the WHODAS. The ROC analysis revealed that the optimal cut-off point of the WHODAS score to distinguish the people who were employed and unemployed was 25.78 (area under curve = 0.80). Conclusions The present study indicated that work status can be determined by the total score across the six domains of the WHODAS score. Furthermore, the probability of employment may be determined initially by the cut-off point of the WHODAS score in order to economize evaluation time and prepare prevocational training for those with scores above 25.78.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-383
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - 01 06 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Disability and (ICF)
  • Employment
  • International classification of functioning
  • Schizophrenia
  • Vocational rehabilitation
  • World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0)


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