Differential prognostic value of tumor and plasma T790M mutations in EGFR TKI-treated advanced NSCLC

Pi Hung Tung, Tzu Hsuan Chiu, Allen Chung Cheng Huang, Jia Shiuan Ju, Chi Hsien Huang, Chin Chou Wang, How Wen Ko, Fu Tsai Chung, Ping Chih Hsu, Yueh Fu Fang, Yi Ke Guo, Chih Hsi Scott Kuo*, Cheng Ta Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


BACKGROUND: Substitution of methionine for threonine at codon 790 (T790M) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents the major mechanism of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer. We determined the prognostic impact and association of secondary T790M mutations with the outcomes of osimertinib and chemotherapy.

METHODS: Patients (n = 460) progressing from first-line EGFR-TKI treatment were assessed. Tissue and/or liquid biopsies were used to determine T790M status; post-progression overall survival (OS) was analyzed.

RESULTS: Overall, 143 (31.1%) patients were T790M positive, 95 (20.7%) were T790M negative, and 222 (48.2%) had unknown T790M status. T790M status [T790M positive versus T790M negative: hazard ratio (HR) 0.48 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-0.70); p < 0.001, T790M unknown versus T790M negative: HR 1.97 (95% CI, 1.47-2.64); p < 0.001] was significantly associated with post-progression OS. T790M positivity rates were similar for tissue (90/168, 53.6%) and liquid (53/90, 58.9%) biopsies (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.433). Tumor T790M-positive patients had significantly longer post-progression OS than tumor T790M-negative patients (34.1 versus 17.1 months; log-rank test, p = 8 × 10 -5). Post-progression OS was similar between plasma T790M-positive and -negative patients (17.4 versus not reached; log-rank test, p = 0.600). In tumor T790M-positive patients, post-progression OS was similar after osimertinib and chemotherapy [34.1 versus 29.1 months; log-rank test, p = 0.900; HR 1.06 (95% CI, 0.44-2.57); p = 0.897].

CONCLUSION: T790M positivity predicts better post-progression OS than T790M negativity; tumor T790M positivity has a stronger prognostic impact than plasma T790M positivity. Osimertinib and chemotherapy provide similar OS benefits in patients with T790M-positive tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17588359231222604
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
StatePublished - 01 01 2024

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s), 2024.


  • EGFR
  • chemotherapy
  • osimertinib
  • plasma T790M
  • tumor T790M


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