Effect of hydrogen implantation on low-temperature activation of boron in silicon

Jui Chang Lin, Bo Wen Lee, Ruey Dar Chang*, Che Men Chu, Wei Yen Woon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations


Understanding the behavior of dopant activation at low temperatures is necessary for three-dimensional integration of transistors. In this work, the impact of hydrogen coimplantation on boron activation was investigated at implantation doses below the amorphization threshold. The carrier depletion effect due to substrate doping was simulated to accurately characterize the initial activation behavior of boron. At temperatures higher than 400 °C, the boron activation level decreased as the hydrogen dose increased. The deactivation caused by hydrogen diminished after extended annealing at 500 °C. This indicated the passivation of boron by hydrogen. However, the boron activation in the sample implanted with hydrogen at a dose of 1 × 1015 cm−2 was first degraded and then enhanced during annealing at 300 °C. The time-dependent activation behavior suggested the elimination of isolated defects via reactions associated with hydrogen migration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58-63
Number of pages6
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
StatePublished - 15 10 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Activation
  • Boron
  • Defect
  • Hydrogen
  • Ion implantation


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