Effectiveness of nationwide copd pay-for-performance program on copd exacerbations in Taiwan

Shih Lung Cheng, Yi Rong Li, Nicole Huang, Chong Jen Yu, Hao Chien Wang, Meng Chih Lin, Kuo Chin Chiu, Wu Huei Hsu, Chiung Zuei Chen, Chau Chyun Sheu, Diahn Warng Perng, Sheng Hao Lin, Tsung Ming Yang, Chih Bin Lin, Chew Teng Kor, Ching Hsiung Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has also imposed a substantial economic and social burden on the health care system. In Taiwan, a nationwide COPD pay-for-performance (P4P) program was designed to improve the quality of COPD-related care by introducing financial incentives for health care providers and employing a multidisciplinary team to deliver guideline-based, integrated care for patients with COPD, reducing adverse outcomes, especially COPD exacerbation. However, the results of a survey of the effectiveness of the pay-for-performance program in COPD management were inconclusive. To address this knowledge gap, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the COPD P4P program in Taiwan. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claims database and nationwide COPD P4P enrollment program records from June 2016 to December 2018. Patients with COPD were classified into P4P and non-P4P groups. Patients in the P4P group were matched at a ratio of 1:1 based on age, gender, region, accreditation level, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and inhaled medication prescription type to create the non-P4P group. A difference-in-difference analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the P4P program on the likelihood of COPD exacerbation, namely COPD-related emergency department (ED) visit, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or hospitalization. Results: The final sample of 14,288 patients comprised 7144 in each of the P4P and non-P4P groups. The prevalence of COPD-related ED visits, ICU admissions, and hospitalizations was higher in the P4P group than in the non-P4P group 1 year before enrollment. After enrollment, the P4P group exhibited a greater decrease in the prevalence of COPD-related ED visits and hospitalizations than the non-P4P group (ED visit: −2.98%, p<0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.277 to −0.086; hospitalization: −1.62%, p<0.05, 95% CI: −0.232 to −0.020), whereas no significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the changes in the prevalence of COPD-related ICU admissions. Conclusion: The COPD P4P program exerted a positive net effect on reducing the likelihood of COPD exacerbation, namely COPD-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Future studies should examine the long-term cost-effectiveness of the COPD P4P program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2869-2881
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of COPD
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Cheng et al.


  • COPD
  • Comprehensive care
  • Exacerbation
  • Financial incentive
  • Guideline-based
  • Pay-for-performance program


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