Effects of various inhibitors on the nucleation of calcium oxalate in synthetic urine

Yu Chao Hsu, Yi Hsuan Lin, Lie Ding Shiau*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

10 Scopus citations


A new synthetic urine was adopted in this work to study the nucleation kinetics of calcium oxalate using a batch crystallizer for various supersaturations at 37 °C. In the studied new synthetic urine, three additional components (urea, uric acid and creatinine) within the normal physiological ranges were added to the commonly-used synthetic urine to simulate human urine more closely. The interfacial energy for the nucleation of calcium oxalate was determined based on classical nucleation theory using the turbidity induction time measurements. The effects of various inhibitors, including magnesium, citrate, hydroxycitrate, chondroitin sulfate, and phytate, on the nucleation of calcium oxalate were investigated in detail. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the influences of these inhibitors on the preferential nucleation of the different hydrates of calcium oxalate crystals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number333
Issue number4
StatePublished - 04 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Calcium oxalate
  • Crystallization
  • Inhibition
  • Interfacial energy
  • Kidney stone
  • Nucleation


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