Enteroviral infection in neonates

Yu Yu Chuang, Yhu Chering Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations

Abstract

Enteroviruses generally cause mild and self-limited diseases, but they have been found to affect neonates much differently, and often more severely than older children. Clinical manifestations are difficult to differentiate from those of bacterial sepsis, such as fever, poor feeding, lethargy, respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse. Severe life threatening complications, including hepatic necrosis with coagulopathy, meningoencephalitis and myocarditis, usually present during the first week of life. Factors affecting severity and outcome include virus serotype, mode of transmission, and presence or absence of passively acquired, serotype-specific maternal antibodies. Echoviruses and coxsackievirus B viruses are most common serotypes associated with the neonatal sepsis. An awareness of the clinical syndromes, recognition of the risk factors and monitoring parameters associated with severe cases and use of rapid reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test for viral load may help physicians in diagnosing severe cases in a timely manner. Prompt aggressive treatment including early intravenous immunoglobulin treatment may help in reducing morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus infections in neonates are common and should be routinely considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile neonates, particularly during enterovirus season. This article provides an overview of what is known about non-polio enteroviruses in neonates including epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)851-857
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 12 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019

Keywords

  • Coagulopathy
  • Enterovirus
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin
  • Myocarditis
  • Neonates

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