Exploring the potential of the nano-based sunscreens and antioxidants for preventing and treating skin photoaging

Chih Hung Lin, Ming Hsien Lin, Yu Kuo Chung, Ahmed Alalaiwe, Chi Feng Hung, Jia You Fang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Excessive exposure to sunlight, especially UV irradiation, causes skin photodamage. Sunscreens, such as TiO2 and ZnO, can potentially prevent UV via scattering, reflection, and absorption. Topical antioxidants are another means of skin photoprotection. Developing nanoparticles for sunscreens and antioxidants is recommended for photoaging prevention and treatment as it can improve uncomfortable skin appearance, stability, penetration, and safety. This study reviewed the effects of nano-sized sunscreens and antioxidants on skin photoprevention by examining published studies and articles from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, which explore the topics of skin photoaging, skin senescence, UV radiation, keratinocyte, dermal fibroblast, sunscreen, antioxidant, and nanoparticle. The researchers of this study also summarized the nano-based UV filters and therapeutics for mitigating skin photoaging. The skin photodamage mechanisms are presented, followed by the introduction of current skin photoaging treatment. The different nanoparticle types used for topical delivery were also explored in this study. This is followed by the mechanisms of how nanoparticles improve the UV filters and antioxidant performance. Lastly, recent investigations were reviewed on nanoparticulate sunscreens and antioxidants in skin photoaging management. Sunscreens and antioxidants for topical application have different concepts. Topical antioxidants are ideal for permeating into the skin to exhibit free radical scavenging activity, while UV filters are prescribed to remain on the skin surface without absorption to exert the UV-blocking effect without causing toxicity. The nanoparticle design strategy for meeting the different needs of sunscreens and antioxidants is also explored in this study. Although the benefits of using nanoparticles for alleviating photodamage are well-established, more animal-based and clinical studies are necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Article number140702
Pages (from-to)140702
StatePublished - 01 2024

Bibliographical note

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  • Antioxidant
  • Nanoparticle
  • Skin delivery
  • Skin photoaging
  • Sunscreen
  • Ultraviolet
  • Antioxidants/pharmacology
  • Skin Diseases
  • Skin Aging
  • Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Skin


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