Expression of high-mobility group box protein 1 in diabetic foot Atherogenesis

C. F. Tsao, W. T. Huang, T. T. Liu, P. W. Wang, C. W. Liou, T. K. Lin, C. J. Hsieh, S. W. Weng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

12 Scopus citations


The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been demonstrated in stroke and coronary artery disease but not in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The pathogenesis of HMGB1 in acute and chronic vascular injury is also not well understood. We hypothesized that HMGB1 induces inflammatory markers in diabetic PAOD patients. We studied 36 diabetic patients, including 29 patients with PAOD, who had undergone amputation for diabetic foot and 7 nondiabetic patients who had undergone amputation after traumatic injury. Expression of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were quantified using immunohistochemical staining. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared with that in the traumatic amputation group, HMGB1 expression in vessels was significantly higher in the diabetes and diabetic PAOD groups. In all subjects, arterial stenosis grade was positively correlated with the expression levels of HMGB1, 8-hydroxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and inflammatory markers CD3, and CD68 in both the intima and the media of vessels. Furthermore, HMGB1 expression level was positively correlated with 8-hydroxyguanosine, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, nuclear factorkB, CD3, and CD68 expression. Within the PAOD subgroup, subjects with HMGB1 expression had higher expression of the autophagy marker LC3A/B and higher mitochondrial DNA copy number. HMGB1 may be an inflammatory mediator with roles in oxidative damage and proinflammatory and inflammatory processes in diabetic atherogenesis. Moreover, it may have dual effects by compensating for increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and increased autophagy marker expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4521-4531
Number of pages11
JournalGenetics and molecular research : GMR
Issue number2
StatePublished - 04 05 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic foot
  • High mobility group box 1
  • Peripheral arterial occlusive disease


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