Functional and Molecular Markers for Hearing Loss and Vertigo Attacks in Meniere’s Disease

Chao Hui Yang*, Ming Yu Yang, Chung Feng Hwang, Kuang Hsu Lien*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Meniere’s disease (MD) is one of the most complicated diseases in the otologic clinic. The complexity of MD is partially due to the multifactorial etiological mechanisms and the heterogenous symptoms, including episodic vertigo, hearing loss, aural fullness and tinnitus. As a result, the diagnosis of MD and differentiating MD from other diseases with similar symptoms, such as vestibular migraine (VM), is challenging. In addition, it is difficult to predict the progression of hearing loss and the frequency of vertigo attacks. Detailed studies have revealed that functional markers, such as pure tone audiometry (PTA), electrocochleography (ECochG), vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP), caloric test, video head impulse test (vHIT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could help to evaluate MD with different hearing levels and frequency of vertigo attacks. Investigations of molecular markers such as autoimmunity, inflammation, protein signatures, vasopressin and circadian clock genes in MD are still underway. This review will summarize these functional and molecular markers, address how these markers are associated with hearing loss and vertigo attacks in MD, and analyze the results of the markers between MD and VM.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2504
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - 28 01 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • Meniere’s disease
  • autoimmunity
  • caloric test
  • circadian clock
  • electrocochleography
  • hearing loss
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • markers
  • pure tone audiometry
  • vasopressin
  • vertigo attacks
  • vestibular evoked myogenic potential
  • vestibular migraine
  • video head impulse test
  • Deafness/complications
  • Humans
  • Meniere Disease/diagnosis
  • Hearing Loss/etiology
  • Vertigo/etiology
  • Tinnitus


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