Functional isokinetic strength ratios in baseball players with injured elbows

Yin Chou Lin*, Angela Thompson, Jung Tang Kung, Liang Wei Chieh, Shih Wei Chou, Jung Charng Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

10 Scopus citations


Context: Elbow injuries are widely reported among baseball players. The elbow is susceptible to injury when elbow-flexor and -extensor forces are imbalanced during pitching or throwing. Assessment of muscle-strength ratios may prove useful for diagnosing elbow injury. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the elbow-flexor and -extensor functional isokinetic ratios and elbow injury in baseball players. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: College baseball players with (n = 9) and without (n = 12) self-reported elbow pain or loss of strength were recruited. Intervention and Main Outcome Measures: Trials were conducted using a dynamometer to assess dominant-arm flexor and extensor concentric and eccentric strength at angular velocities of 60° and 240°/s. Functional isokinetic ratios were calculated and compared between groups. Results: Regression analysis revealed that a ratio of biceps concentric to triceps concentric strength greater than 0.76 (the median value) significantly predicted elbow injury (P = .01, odds ratio of injury = 24). No other ratios or variables (including position played) were predictive of injury status. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the ratio of biceps concentric to triceps concentric functional strength strongly predicts elbow-injury status in baseball players. Assessment of this ratio may prove useful in a practical setting for training purposes and both injury diagnosis and rehabilitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-29
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sport Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - 02 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Biceps
  • Concentric
  • Eccentric
  • Triceps


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