Galangin inhibits LPS-induced MMP-9 expression via suppressing protein kinase-dependent AP-1 and FoxO1 activation in rat brain astrocytes

Chien Chung Yang*, Li Der Hsiao, Chuen Mao Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

23 Scopus citations


Purpose: Neuroinflammation, characterized by the increased expression of inflammatory proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), plays a critical role in neurodegenerative disorders. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to upregulate MMP-9 expression through the activation of various transcription factors, including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1). The flavonoid 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (galangin) has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in various types of cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of galangin on LPS-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells). Methods: Pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs were employed to explore the effects of galangin on LPS-challenged RBA-1 cells. Gelatin zymography, Western blotting, real-time PCR, and a luciferase reporter assay were used to detect MMP-9 activity, protein expression, mRNA levels, and promoter activity, respectively. The protein kinases involved in the LPS-induced MMP-9 expression were determined by Western blot. A chromatin immunoprecipi-tation (ChIP) assay was employed to evaluate the activity of c-Jun at the MMP-9 promoter. Results: Galangin treatment attenuated the LPS-mediated induction of MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression, as well as the activity at the MMP-9 promoter. In addition, galangin exerted its inhibitory effects on MMP-9 expression through suppressing the LPS-stimulated activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Pretreatment with galangin attenuated the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun and FoxO1. LPS-induced cell migration was also suppressed by galangin pretreatment. Conclusion: Galangin attenuates the LPS-induced inflammatory responses, including the induction of MMP-9 expression and cell migration, via inhibiting Pyk2/PDGFRβ/PI3K/Akt/ mTOR/JNK1/JNK2 and p44/p42 MAPK cascade-dependent AP-1 and FoxO1 activities. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms through which galangin mitigates LPS-induced inflammatory responses, and suggest novel strategies for the management of LPS-related brain diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)945-960
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Inflammation Research
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Yang et al.


  • Astrocytes
  • Chinese herbal medicine
  • LPS
  • Matrix metalloproteinase
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Protein kinases


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