Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors interact with ATP binding cassette transporter 4/multidrug resistance protein 4: A basis for unanticipated enhanced cytotoxicity

Yu Fukuda, Kazumasa Takenaka, Alex Sparreboom, Satish B. Cheepala, Chung Pu Wu, Sean Ekins, Suresh V. Ambudkar, John D. Schuetz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV- associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleosidebased antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulatedMRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substratestimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/ Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-371
Number of pages11
JournalMolecular Pharmacology
Volume84
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 09 2013
Externally publishedYes

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