In situ synthesis of core-shell carbon nanowires as a potent targeted anticoagulant

Ju Yi Mao, Fu Yin Lin, Han Wei Chu, Scott G. Harroun, Jui Yang Lai, Han Jia Lin*, Chih Ching Huang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

12 Scopus citations


We have developed a one-pot synthesis of bio-carbon nanowires from the natural product sodium alginate at low temperature, without using any catalyst, for anticoagulation applications. Sodium alginate is carbonized and sulfated/sulfonated in situ by solid state heating of a mixture of sodium alginate and ammonium sulfite. By regulating the heating temperature and the ratio of ammonium sulfite to sodium alginate, we modulated the degree of sulfation/sulfonation and carbonization, as well as the morphology of the carbon nanomaterials. The core-shell sulfated/sulfonated bio-carbon nanowires (CNWsAlg@SOx)made by the reaction of a mixture of ammonium sulfite and sodium alginate with a mass ratio of 5 (ammonium sulfite to sodium alginate)at 165 °C for 3 h, exhibit strong inhibition of thrombin activity due to their ultrahigh binding affinity towards it (dissociation constant (Kd)= 8.7 × 10−11 M). The possible formation mechanism of the carbon nanowires has been proposed. The thrombin-clotting time delay caused by CNWsAlg@SOx is ∼ 170 times longer than that caused by sodium alginate. Hemolysis and cytotoxicity assays demonstrated the high biocompatibility of CNWsAlg@SOx. Furthermore, the thromboelastography of whole-blood coagulation and rat-tail bleeding assays further reveal that CNWsAlg@SOx have a much stronger anticoagulation activity than sodium alginate and naturally sulfated polysaccharides (e.g., fucoidan). Our results suggest that the low-temperature prepared, cost-effective, and highly biocompatible CNWsAlg@SOx show great potential as an efficient anticoagulant for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with thrombosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-596
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Colloid and Interface Science
StatePublished - 15 09 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


  • Ammonium sulfite
  • Anticoagulation
  • Carbon nanowires
  • Sodium alginate
  • Sulfation
  • Thrombin


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