Incidental Tuberculosis Epididymitis/Epididymo-orchitis: A Retrospective Analysis at a Tertiary Center in Taiwan

Yu Kuan Yang, Hsiao Wen Chen*, Li Chueh Weng, Kwai Fong Ng, Hsu Han Wang, Ming Li Hsieh, Sheng Hsien Chu, Yu Chen, Ta Min Wang, Yang Jen Chiang, Kuo Jen Lin, Chih Te Lin, Pai Yen Pan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine the earliest noticeable manifestation and diagnosis in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) epididymitis/epididymo-orchitis incidentally and to analyze their responses to surgical and medical treatment. Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for the preliminary impression of chronic epididymitis/epididymo-orchitis or epididymal/testicular tumor from 2000 to 2019 were included in the study. The clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiological examinations, and operative findings were analyzed retrospectively. The outcomes were assessed by the responses to anti-TB chemotherapy and post treatment radiographic evaluations. Results: All of our 25 patients with a mean age of 60.6 years were diagnosed incidentally with TB epididymitis (48.0%) and TB epididymo-orchitis (52.0%) according to the histopathological findings from their surgeries. The presence of a palpable scrotal mass (76.0%), was the major presentation. Nineteen (76.0%) patients had undergone complete chemotherapy after the surgery and 15 (78.9%) patients showed complete recovery. Four (21.1%) patients had unfavorable outcomes, 3 had TB autonephrectomies and 1 required re-surgery years after complete chemotherapy. Of the 3 (12.0%) patients who did not receive chemotherapy after their surgeries, 1 had a TB relapse in the spine and lung and 1 developed bladder cancer years later. Conclusion: Tuberculosis epididymitis/epididymo-orchitis is difficult to diagnose. However, some clinical clues can assist including aged patients, extragenital TB histories, poor responses to antibiotic treatment and scrotal skin lesion. Complete anti-TB chemotherapy is mandatory even after the total removal of TB lesion. Supplemental surgical interventions can be considered when the symptoms are not relieved after chemotherapy. Lifespan follow-up is recommended due to high relapse rate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-121
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 10 2022

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© 2022 Elsevier Inc.


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