Inducing cathepsin L expression/production, lysosomal activation, and autophagy of human dental pulp cells by dentin bonding agents, camphorquinone and BisGMA and the related mechanisms

Mei Chi Chang, Jen Hao Chen, Hui Na Lee, Shyuan Yow Chen, Bor Hao Zhong, Kunaal Dhingra, Yu Hwa Pan, Hsiao Hua Chang, Yi Jane Chen*, Jiiang Huei Jeng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Camphorquinone (CQ) and resin monomers are included in dentin bonding agents (DBAs) and composite resin to restore tooth defects due to abrasion, crown fracture, or dental caries. DBAs, CQ, and bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA) applications influence the biological activities of the dental pulp. The current investigation aimed to delineate the effect of DBAs, CQ, and BisGMA on cathepsin L production/expression, lysosomal activity, and autophagy induction in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). HDPCs were exposed to DBAs, CQ, or BisGMA with/without inhibitors for 24 h. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to determine the cathepsin L level in culture medium. The cell layer was utilized to measure cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl -tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA expression. Western blotting or immunofluorescent staining was used to study protein expression. Lysosomal density was evaluated by lysotracker red staining. We found that DBAs, CQ, and BisGMA stimulated cathepsin L mRNA, protein expression, and production in HDPCs. In addition, CQ and BisGMA induced lysosomal activity, Beclin1, ATG12, LC3B, Bax, and p53 expression in HDPCs, indicating the stimulation of autophagy. Glutathione (GSH) prevented CQ- and BisGMA-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, E64d, cathepsin L inhibitor (two cathepsin inhibitors), and Pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor) showed little preventive effect toward CQ- and BisGMA-induced cytotoxicity. Autophagy inhibitors (NH4Cl, Lys05) mildly enhanced the CQ- and BisGMA-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate that DBAs stimulated cathepsin L, possibly due to their content of CQ and BisGMA that may induce cathepsin L in HDPCs. CQ and BisGMA stimulated lysosomal activity, autophagy, and apoptosis, possibly via induction of Beclin 1, ATG12, LC-3B, Bax, and p53 expression. In addition, CQ and BisGMA cytotoxicity was related to redox change and autophagy. These events are important role in pulpal changes after the restoration of tooth decay using CQ- and BisGMA-containing DBAs and resin composite.

Original languageEnglish
Article number213253
JournalBiomaterials Advances
Volume145
DOIs
StatePublished - 02 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

Keywords

  • Autophagy
  • BisGMA
  • Camphorquinone
  • Cathepsin L
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Dental pulp cells

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