Lipopolysaccharide-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression associated with cell migration in rat brain astrocytes

Chien Chung Yang, Chih Chung Lin, Li Der Hsiao, Jing Ming Kuo, Hui Ching Tseng, Chuen Mao Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

24 Scopus citations


Neuroinflammation is a landmark of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, one member of MMPs, has been shown to contribute to the pathology of these brain diseases. Several experimental models have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exerts a pathological role through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) are not completely understood. Here, we applied pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA transfection to assess the levels of MMP-9 protein, mRNA, and promoter activity, as well as protein kinase phosphorylation in RBA-1 cells triggered by LPS. We found that LPS-induced expression of pro-form MMP-9 and cell migration were mediated through TLR4, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase (c-Src), proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 signaling molecules in RBA-1 cells. In addition, LPS-stimulated binding of c-Jun to the MMP-9 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, which was blocked by pretreatment with c-Src inhibitor II, PF431396, AG1296, LY294002, Akt inhibitor VIII, p38 MAP kinase inhibitor VIII, SP600125, and tanshinone IIA. These results suggest that in RBA-1 cells, LPS activates a TLR4/c-Src/Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathway, which in turn triggers activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation and ultimately induces MMP-9 expression and cell migration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number259
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - 01 01 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Astrocytes
  • LPS
  • MMP-9
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation


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