Localized thin-section CT with radiomics feature extraction and machine learning to classify early-detected pulmonary nodules from lung cancer screening

Shu Ju Tu, Chih Wei Wang, Kuang Tse Pan, Yi Cheng Wu, Chen Te Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

40 Scopus citations

Abstract

Lung cancer screening aims to detect small pulmonary nodules and decrease the mortality rate of those affected. However, studies from large-scale clinical trials of lung cancer screening have shown that the false-positive rate is high and positive predictive value is low. To address these problems, a technical approach is greatly needed for accurate malignancy differentiation among these early-detected nodules. We studied the clinical feasibility of an additional protocol of localized thin-section CT for further assessment on recalled patients from lung cancer screening tests. Our approach of localized thin-section CT was integrated with radiomics features extraction and machine learning classification which was supervised by pathological diagnosis. Localized thin-section CT images of 122 nodules were retrospectively reviewed and 374 radiomics features were extracted. In this study, 48 nodules were benign and 74 malignant. There were nine patients with multiple nodules and four with synchronous multiple malignant nodules. Different machine learning classifiers with a stratified ten-fold cross-validation were used and repeated 100 times to evaluate classification accuracy. Of the image features extracted from the thin-section CT images, 238 (64%) were useful in differentiating between benign and malignant nodules. These useful features include CT density (p = 0.002 518), sigma (p = 0.002 781), uniformity (p = 0.032 41), and entropy (p = 0.006 685). The highest classification accuracy was 79% by the logistic classifier. The performance metrics of this logistic classification model was 0.80 for the positive predictive value, 0.36 for the false-positive rate, and 0.80 for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Our approach of direct risk classification supervised by the pathological diagnosis with localized thin-section CT and radiomics feature extraction may support clinical physicians in determining truly malignant nodules and therefore reduce problems in lung cancer screening.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065005
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume63
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 14 03 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

Keywords

  • false-positive rate
  • localized thin-section CT
  • lung cancer screening
  • machine learning
  • positive predictive value
  • radiomics

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