Logical regulation of the enzyme-like activity of gold nanoparticles by using heavy metal ions

Chia Wen Lien, Ying Chieh Chen, Huan Tsung Chang*, Chih Ching Huang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

93 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study we employed self-deposition and competitive or synergistic interactions between metal ions and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to develop OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates through regulation of the enzyme-like activity of Au NPs. In the presence of various metal ions (Ag+, Bi 3+, Pb2+, Pt4+, and Hg2+), we found that Au NPs (13 nm) exhibited peroxidase-, oxidase-, or catalase-like activity. After Ag+, Bi3+, or Pb2+ ions had been deposited on the Au NPs, the particles displayed strong peroxidase-like activity; on the other hand, they exhibited strong oxidase- and catalase-like activities after reactions with Ag+/Hg2+ and Hg 2+/Bi3+ ions, respectively. The catalytic activities of these Au NPs arose mainly from the various oxidation states of the surface metal atoms/ions. Taking advantage of this behavior, we constructed multiplex logic operations - OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates - through regulation of the enzyme-like activity after the introduction of metal ions into the Au NP solution. When we deposited Hg2+ and/or Bi3+ ions onto the Au NPs, the catalase-like activities of the Au NPs were strongly enhanced (>100-fold). Therefore, we could construct an OR logic gate by using Hg 2+/Bi3+ as inputs and the catalase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Likewise, we constructed an AND logic gate by using Pt 4+ and Hg2+ as inputs and the oxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; the co-deposition of Pt and Hg atoms/ions on the Au NPs was responsible for this oxidase-like activity. Competition between Pb 2+ and Hg2+ ions for the Au NPs allowed us to develop an INHIBIT logic gate - using Pb2+ and Hg2+ as inputs and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Finally, regulation of the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs through the two inputs Ag+ and Bi3+ enabled us to construct an XOR logic gate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8227-8234
Number of pages8
JournalNanoscale
Volume5
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - 07 09 2013
Externally publishedYes

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