Low-molecular-weight-heparin can benefit women with recurrent pregnancy loss and sole protein S deficiency: A historical control cohort study from Taiwan

Ming Ching Shen, Wan Ju Wu, Po Jen Cheng, Gwo Chin Ma, Wen Chu Li, Jui Der Liou, Cheng Shyong Chang, Wen Hsiang Lin, Ming Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: Heritable thrombophilias are assumed important etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss. Unlike in the Caucasian populations, protein S and protein C deficiencies, instead of Factor V Lieden and Prothrombin mutations, are relatively common in the Han Chinese population. In this study we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of low molecular weight heparin upon women with recurrent pregnancy loss and documented protein S deficiency. Methods: During 2011-2016, 68 women with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) and protein S deficiency (both the free antigen and function of protein S were reduced) were initially enrolled. All the women must have experienced at least three recurrent miscarriages. After excluding those carrying balanced translocation, medical condition such as diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, and autoimmune disorders (including systemic lupus erythematosus and anti-phospholipid syndrome), coexisting thrombophilias other than persistent protein S deficiency (including transient low protein S level, protein C deficiency, and antithrombin III), only 51 women with RPL and sole protein S deficiency were enrolled. Initially they were prescribed low dose Aspirin (ASA: 100 mg/day) and unfortunately there were still 39 women ended up again with early pregnancy loss (12 livebirths were achieved though). Low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) was given for the 39 women in a dose of 1 mg/Kg every 12 h from the day when the next clinical pregnancy was confirmed to the timing at least 24 h before delivery. The perinatal outcomes were assessed. Results: Of 50 treatment subjects performed for the 39 women (i.e. 11 women enrolled twice for two pregnancies), 46 singletons and one twin achieved livebirths. The successful live-birth rate in the whole series was 94 % (47/50). Nineteen livebirths delivered vaginally whereas 28 delivered by cesarean section. The cesarean delivery rate is thus 59.57 %. Emergent deliveries occurred in 3 but no postpartum hemorrhage had been noted. Conclusions: Our pilot study in Taiwan, an East Asian population, indicated anti-coagulation therapy is of benefit to women with recurrent pregnancy loss who had documented sole protein S deficiency. Trial registration:ISRCTN64574169. Retrospectively registered 29 Jun 2016.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
JournalThrombosis Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 28 10 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Author(s).


  • Anticoagulation
  • Low-molecular-weight-heparin
  • Protein S deficiency
  • Recurrent miscarriages
  • Thrombophilia


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