Maintenance tegafur-plus-uracil after adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy may improve outcome for resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with extranodal extension

Pei Wei Huang, Chien Yu Lin, Li Yu Lee, Chia Hsun Hsieh, Cheng Lung Hsu, Chi Ting Liau, Kang Hsing Fan, Shiang Fu Huang, Chun Ta Liao, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Hung Ming Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate whether tegafur-uracil maintenance (UFTm) following postoperation adjuvant cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) may reduce distant metastasis in patients with resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with pathologic extranodal extension (pENE+). Methods: A retrospective comparison was conducted between two cohorts of patients with resected pENE+ OSCC who completed adjuvant CCRT between March 2015 and December 2017, including one cohort of a phase II trial using UFTm and a trial-eligible but off-protocol cohort without using UFTm (non-UFTm) after their adjuvant CCRT. The UFTm trial enrolled patients without relapse within 2 months after the end of adjuvant CCRT and administered UFT 400 mg/day for 1 year. Kaplan–Meier methods estimated the actuarial rate of distant metastasis-free (DMF), locoregional control (LRC), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 103 patients were included in this study, 64 patients in UFTm and 39 patients in non-UFTm. Severe adverse events in UFTm included grade 3 anemia (n = 1, 1.6%) and grade 3 mucositis (n = 1, 1.6%). A total of 40 (62.5%) patients completed the full course of UFTm, while the remaining terminated UFTm earlier due to disease relapse (n = 14, 21.8%), poor compliance (n = 9, 14.1%), and adverse event (n = 1, 1.6%). The median (range) follow-up time of surviving patients was 43 (22–65) months. The outcomes compared between UFTm and non-UFTm were OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.31 [95% CI: 0.17–0.57], p < 0·001), EFS (0.45 [0.25–0.82], 0.009), LRC (0.45 [0.19–1.05], 0.067), and DMF (0.47 [0.24–0.95], 0.035). Multivariable analysis, adjusted for UFTm, Charlson comorbidity index score 1–3, site of tongue, and number of ENE+ LN ≧4, confirmed better OS (0.29 [0.16–0.54], <0.001) and EFS (0.47 [0.26–0.85], 0.012) in favor of UFTm over non-UFTm. The 2-year DM rate was 25.8% in UFTm and 44.2% in non-UFTm. For relapsed patients in UFTm vs. non-UFTm, the rate of metastasectomy for oligometastasis was 53% vs. 6%, and the OS was 21.0 (95% CI: 17.8–24.1) months vs. 11.0 (9.1–12.8) months (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: UFTm may improve the dismal outcomes of the resected pENE+ OSCC. Further investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number866890
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - 28 09 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Huang, Lin, Lee, Hsieh, Hsu, Liau, Fan, Huang, Liao, Chang and Wang.

Keywords

  • extranodal extension
  • head and neck cancer
  • maintenance therapy
  • oligometastasis
  • tegafur plus uracil

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