Maximum likelihood-based adaptive iteration algorithm design for joint CFO and channel estimation in MIMO-OFDM systems

Nan Hung Cheng*, Kai Chieh Huang, Yung Fang Chen, Shu Ming Tseng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

9 Scopus citations


In this paper, we present a joint time-variant carrier frequency offset (CFO) and frequency-selective channel response estimation scheme for multiple input-multiple output-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems for mobile users. The signal model of the MIMO-OFDM system is introduced, and the joint estimator is derived according to the maximum likelihood criterion. The proposed algorithm can be separated into three major parts. In the first part of the proposed algorithm, an initial CFO is estimated using derotation, and the result is used to apply a frequency-domain equalizer. In the second part, an iterative method is employed to locate the fine frequency peak for better CFO estimation. An adaptive process is used in the third part of the proposed algorithm to obtain the updated CFO estimation and track parameter time variations, including the time-varying CFOs and time-varying channels. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is considerably lower than that of the maximum likelihood-based grid search method. In a simulation, the mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm was close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The simulation results indicate that the proposed novel joint estimation algorithm provides a bit error rate performance close to that in the perfect channel estimation condition. The results also suggest that the proposed method has reliable tracking performance in Jakes’ channel models.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6
JournalEurasip Journal on Advances in Signal Processing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 12 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • Carrier frequency offset (CFO)
  • Joint maximum likelihood estimation
  • Multiple input multiple output (MIMO)
  • Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)


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