Micro-droplet platform for exploring the mechanism of mixed field agglutination in b3 subtype

Ding Ping Chen, Chen Chen, Pei Yu Wu, Yen Heng Lin*, Wei Tzu Lin, Yi Liang Yan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

2 Scopus citations


B3 is the most common subtype of blood group B in the Taiwanese population, and most of the B3 individuals in the Taiwanese population have the IVS3 + 5 G > A (rs55852701) gene variation. Additionally, a typical mixed field agglutination is observed when the B3 subtype is tested with anti-B antibody or anti-AB antibody. The molecular biology of the gene variation in the B3 subtype has been identified, however, the mechanism of the mixed field agglutination caused by the type B3 blood samples is still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand the reason for the mixed field agglutination caused by B3 . A micro-droplet platform was used to observe the agglutination of type B and type B3 blood samples in different blood sample concentrations, antibody concentrations, and at reaction times. We found that the agglutination reaction in every droplet slowed down with an increase in the dilution ratio of blood sample and antibody, whether type B blood or type B3 blood was used. However, as the reaction time increased, the complete agglutination in the droplet was seen in type B blood, while the mixed field agglutination still occurred in B3 within 1 min. In addition, the degree of agglutination was similar in each droplet, which showed high reproducibility. As a result, we inferred that there are two types of cells in the B3 subtype that simultaneously create a mixed field agglutination, rather than each red blood cell carrying a small amount of antigen, resulting in less agglutination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number276
Issue number8
StatePublished - 08 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • B subtyping
  • Blood agglutination
  • Microfluidics


Dive into the research topics of 'Micro-droplet platform for exploring the mechanism of mixed field agglutination in b3 subtype'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this