Mismatch negativity in patients with major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis

Yi Jhan Tseng, Rui Nouchi, Chia Hsiung Cheng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective: Deficits of mismatch negativity (MMN), a general index of echoic memory function, have been documented in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains controversial whether patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate MMN defects compared with healthy controls (HC). Methods: After screening 41 potential studies identified in PubMed and Medline, 13 studies consisting of 343 HC and 339 patients with MDD were included in the present meta-analysis. The effect sizes (Hedges's g) with a random-effect and inverse-variance weighted model were estimated for the MMN amplitudes and latencies. The effects of different deviant types (i.e., frequency and duration) and of different illness stages (i.e., acute and chronic) on MMN were also examined. Results: We found that 1) MMN amplitudes (g = 1.273, p < 0.001) and latencies (g = 0.303, p = 0.027) to duration, but not frequency deviants, were significantly impaired in patients with MDD compared to HC; 2), acute patients exhibited lower MMN amplitudes (g = 1.735, p < 0.001) and prolonged MMN latencies (g = 0.461, p = 0.007) for the duration deviants compared to HC. Only the attenuated duration MMN amplitudes were detected in patients with chronic MDD (g = 0.822, p = 0.027); and 3) depressive symptoms did not significantly correlate with MMN responses. Conclusions: Patients with MDD demonstrated abnormal MMN responses to duration deviants compared to HC. Significance: Duration MMN may constitute an electrophysiological indicator to differentiate HC from patients with MDD, particularly those in the acute stage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2654-2665
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 10 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology


  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Meta-analysis
  • Mismatch negativity


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