Multiple factors from bradykinin-challenged astrocytes contribute to the neuronal apoptosis: Involvement of astroglial ROS, MMP-9, and HO-1/CO system

Chuen Mao Yang*, Hsi Lung Hsieh, Chih Chung Lin, Ruey Horng Shih, Pei Ling Chi, Shin Ei Cheng, Li Der Hsiao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce the expression of several inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloprotei-nases (MMPs), in brain astrocytes. These mediators may contribute to neuronal dysfunction and death in various neurological disorders. However, the effects of multiple inflammatory mediators released from BK-challenged astro-cytes on neuronal cells remain unclear. Here, we found that multiple factors were released from brain astrocytes (RBA-1) exposed to BK in the conditioned culture media (BK-CM), including ROS, MMP-9, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO), leading to neuronal cell (SK-N-SH) death. Exposure of SK-N-SH cells to BK-CM or H2O2 reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis which were attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, indicating a role of ROS in these responses. The effect of BK-CM on cell viability and cell apoptosis was also reversed by immunoprecipitation of BK-CM with anti-MMP-9 antibody (MMP-9-IP-CM) or MMP2/9 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of MMP-9 in BK-CM-mediated responses. Astroglial HO-1/CO in BK-CM induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell viability which was reversed by hemoglobin. Consistently, the involvement of CO in these cellular responses was revealed by incubation with a CO donor CO-RM2 which was reversed by hemoglobin. The role of HO-1 in BK-CM-induced responses was confirmed by overexpression of HO-1 in SK-N-SH infected with Adv-HO-1. BK-CM-induced cell apoptosis was due to the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. Together, we demonstrate that BK-induced several neurotoxic factors, including ROS, MMP-9, and CO released from astrocytes, may induce neuronal death through a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1020-1033
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 06 2013

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Astrocytes
  • Bradykinin
  • Caspase-3
  • Neurotoxic molecules

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