Neural oscillations underlying the neural gating of respiratory sensations in generalized anxiety disorder

Kai Jie Liang, Chia Hsiung Cheng, Chia Yih Liu, Shih Chieh Hsu, Andreas von Leupoldt, Valentina Jelinčić, Pei Ying S. Chan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review


Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been shown to have altered neural gating of respiratory sensations (NGRS) using respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP); however, corresponding neural oscillatory activities remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate altered NGRS in individuals with GAD using both time and time-frequency analysis. Nineteen individuals with GAD and 28 healthy controls were recruited. Paired inspiratory occlusions were delivered to elicit cortical neural activations measured from electroencephalography. The GAD group showed smaller N1 amplitudes to the first stimulus (S1), lower evoked gamma and larger evoked beta oscillations compared to controls. Both groups showed larger N1, P3, beta power and theta power in response to S1 compared to S2, suggesting a neural gating phenomenon. These findings suggest that N1, gamma and beta frequency oscillations may be indicators for altered respiratory sensation in GAD populations and that the N1, P3, beta and theta oscillations can reflect the neural gating of respiratory sensations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104215
Pages (from-to)104215
JournalRespiratory Physiology and Neurobiology
StatePublished - 03 2024

Bibliographical note

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  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder
  • Respiratory sensation
  • Respiratory sensory gating
  • Respiratory-related evoked potentials
  • Evoked Potentials/physiology
  • Sensation
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Respiratory Rate
  • Humans
  • Electroencephalography
  • Sensory Gating/physiology


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