Neutrophil-targeted combinatorial nanosystems for suppressing bacteremia-associated hyperinflammation and MRSA infection to improve survival rates

Yen Tzu Chang, Cheng Yu Lin, Chih Jung Chen, Erica Hwang, Abdullah Alshetaili, Huang Ping Yu*, Jia You Fang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

Abstract

There is currently no specific and effective treatment for bacteremia-mediated sepsis. Hence, this study engineered a combinatorial nanosystem containing neutrophil-targeted roflumilast-loaded nanocarriers and non-targeted fusidic acid-loaded nanoparticles to enable the dual mitigation of bacteremia-associated inflammation and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The targeted nanoparticles were developed by conjugating anti-lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G6D (Ly6G) antibody fragment on the nanoparticulate surface. The particle size and zeta potential of the as-prepared nanosystem were about 200 nm and −25 mV, respectively. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles showed a three-fold increase in neutrophil internalization compared to the unfunctionalized nanoparticles. As a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, the roflumilast in the nanocarriers largely inhibited cytokine/chemokine release from the activated neutrophils. The fusidic acid-loaded nanocarriers were vital to eliminate biofilm MRSA colony by 3 log units. The nanoparticles drastically decreased the intracellular bacterial count compared to the free antibiotic. The in vivo mouse bioimaging demonstrated prolonged retention of the nanosystem in the circulation with limited organ distribution and liver metabolism. In the mouse bacteremia model, the multifunctional nanosystem produced a 1‒2 log reduction of MRSA burden in peripheral organs and blood. The functionalized nanosystem arrested the cytokine/chemokine overexpression greater than the unfunctionalized nanocarriers and free drugs. The combinatory nanosystem also extended the median survival time from 50 to 103 h. No toxicity from the nanoformulation was found based on histology and serum biochemistry. Furthermore, our data proved that the active neutrophil targeting by the versatile nanosystem efficiently alleviated MRSA infection and organ dysfunction caused by bacteremia. Statement of significance: Bacteremia-mediated sepsis poses a significant challenge in clinical practice, as there is currently no specific and effective treatment available. In our study, we have developed a novel combinatorial nanosystem to address this issue. Our nanosystem consists of neutrophil-targeted roflumilast-loaded nanocarriers and non-targeted fusidic acid-loaded nanoparticles, enabling the simultaneous mitigation of bacteremia-associated inflammation and MRSA infection. Our nanosystem demonstrated the decreased neutrophil activation, effective inhibition of cytokine release, elimination of MRSA biofilm colonies, and reduced intracellular bacterial counts. In vivo experiments showed prolonged circulation, limited organ distribution, and increased survival rates in a mouse bacteremia model. Importantly, our nanosystem exhibited no toxicity based on comprehensive assessments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-344
Number of pages14
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume174
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 01 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • Inflammation
  • Ly6G
  • MRSA
  • Nanoparticle
  • Neutrophil
  • Neutrophils
  • Survival Rate
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Bacteremia/complications
  • Animals
  • Staphylococcal Infections/complications
  • Fusidic Acid/pharmacology
  • Mice
  • Cytokines/pharmacology
  • Chemokines
  • Disease Models, Animal

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