New Insights into the Treatment of Glomerular Diseases: When Mechanisms Become Vivid

Da Wei Lin, Cheng Chih Chang, Yung Chien Hsu*, Chun Liang Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Treatment for glomerular diseases has been extrapolated from the experience of other autoimmune disorders while the underlying pathogenic mechanisms were still not well understood. As the classification of glomerular diseases was based on patterns of juries instead of mechanisms, treatments were typically the art of try and error. With the advancement of molecular biology, the role of the immune agent in glomerular diseases is becoming more evident. The four-hit theory based on the discovery of gd-IgA1 gives a more transparent outline of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and dysregulation of Treg plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of minimal change disease (MCD). An epoch-making breakthrough is the discovery of PLA2R antibodies in the primary membranous nephropathy (pMN). This is the first biomarker applied for precision medicine in kidney disease. Understanding the immune system’s role in glomerular diseases allows the use of various immunosuppressants or other novel treatments, such as complement inhibitors, to treat glomerular diseases more reasonable. In this era of advocating personalized medicine, it is inevitable to develop precision medicine with mechanism-based novel biomarkers and novel therapies in kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3525
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - 01 04 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • IgA nephropathy
  • Immunosuppressant
  • Membranous nephropathy
  • Minimal change disease
  • Precision medicine


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