Gu-Sui-Bu, the dried rhizome of Davallia mariesii, is a traditional Chinese herbal remedy with a significant history of treating osteoporosis and inflammatory conditions. However, its potential as an anti-influenza agent and its underlying mechanisms of action remain unexplored. To obtain a more potent extract from D. mariesii and gain insights into its mechanism of action against influenza A virus (IAV), we utilized a partitioning process involving organic solvents and water, resulting in the isolation of butanolic subfractions of the D. mariesii extract (DMBE). DMBE exhibited a broad anti-viral spectrum, effectively inhibiting IAV, with an EC50 of 24.32 ± 6.19 µg/mL and a selectivity index of 6.05. We subsequently conducted a series of in vitro assays to evaluate the antiviral effects of DMBE and to uncover its mechanisms of action. DMBE was found to inhibit IAV during the early stages of infection by hindering the attachment of the virus onto and its penetration into host cells. Importantly, DMBE was observed to hinder IAV-mediated cell-cell fusion. It also inhibited neuraminidase activity, plaque size, and the expression levels of phospho-AKT. In summary, this study provides evidence for the effectiveness of D. mariesii as a complementary and alternative herbal remedy against IAV. Specifically, our data highlight DMBE's capabilities in inhibiting viral entry and the release of virions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number523
Issue number4
StatePublished - 28 03 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
  • Influenza A virus/drug effects
  • Humans
  • Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
  • Dogs
  • Virus Internalization/drug effects
  • Sapindaceae/chemistry
  • Virus Replication/drug effects
  • Virus Attachment/drug effects
  • Influenza, Human/drug therapy
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
  • Neuraminidase/metabolism
  • A549 Cells
  • Cell Line
  • Davallia mariesii
  • hemagglutination
  • neuraminidase
  • Gu-Sui-Bu
  • influenza A virus


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