Oral apomorphine delivery from solid lipid nanoparticleswith different monostearate emulsifiers: Pharmacokinetic and behavioral evaluations

Ming Jun Tsai, Yaw Bin Huang, Pao Chu Wu, Yaw Syan Fu, Yao Ren Kao, Jia You Fang*, Yi Hung Tsai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

126 Scopus citations


Apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist for treating Parkinson's disease, has very poor oral bioavailability (<2%) due to the first-pass effect. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the oral bioavailability and brain regional distribution of apomorphine could be improved by utilizing solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and polyethylene glycol monostearate (PMS) were individually incorporated into SLNs as emulsifiers. It was found that variations in the emulsifiers had profound effects on the physicochemical characteristics. Mean diameters of the GMS and PMS systems were 155 and 63 nm, respectively. More than 90% of the apomorphine was entrapped in the SLNs. The interfacial film was the likely location for most of apomorphine molecules. The PMS system, when incubated in simulated intestinal medium, was found to be more stable in terms of particle size and encapsulation efficiency than the GMS system. Using the GMS and PMS systems to orally administer apomorphine (26 mg/kg) equally enhanced the bioavailability in rats. SLNs showed 12- to 13-fold higher bioavailability than the reference solution. The drug distribution in the striatum, the predominant site of therapeutic action, also increased when using the SLNs. The anti-Parkinsonian activity of apomorphine was evaluated in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions, a model of Parkinson's disease. The contralateral rotation behavior was examined after oral apomorphine delivery. The total number of rotations increased from 20 to 94 and from 20 to 115 when the drug was administered from SLNs containing GMS and PMS, respectively. The experimental results suggest that SLNs may offer a promising strategy for apomorphine delivery via oral ingestion. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 100:547-557, 2011

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-557
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - 02 2011


  • Apomorphine
  • Bioavailability
  • Drug transport
  • Nanoparticles
  • Oral absorption
  • Pharmacokinetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Oral apomorphine delivery from solid lipid nanoparticleswith different monostearate emulsifiers: Pharmacokinetic and behavioral evaluations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this