Outcome of patients with chlorpyrifos intoxication

H. F. Liu, C. H. Ku, S. S. Chang, C. M. Chang, I. K. Wang, H. Y. Yang, C. H. Weng, W. H. Huang, C. W. Hsu, T. H. Yen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: There is a paucity of literature analyzing outcome of chlorpyrifos intoxication. Methods: A total of 40 patients with chlorpyrifos intoxication were seen at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2008 and 2017. Patients were stratified into two subgroups according to their prognosis, as good (n = 12) or poor (n = 28). Good prognosis group were defined as patients who survived without serious complications, and poor prognosis group included patients who died and survived after development of severe complications. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Results: Patients aged 53.8 ± 16.3 years and most were male (80.0%). All patients (100.0%) developed acute cholinergic crisis such as emesis (45.0%), respiratory failure (42.5%), tachycardia (30.0%), kidney injury (22.5%), and seizure (7.5%). Intermediate syndrome developed in 12.5% of patients, but none had delayed neuropathy (0%). The poor prognosis group suffered higher incidences of respiratory failure (p = 0.011), kidney injury (p = 0.026), and prolonged corrected QT interval (p = 0.000), and they had higher blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.041), lower Glasgow coma scale score (p = 0.011), and lower monocyte count (p = 0.023) than good prognosis group. All patients were treated with atropine and pralidoxime therapy, but six patients (15.0%) still died of intoxication. In a multivariate logistic regression model, blood urea nitrogen was a significant risk factor for poor prognosis (odds ratio: 1.375, 95% confidence interval: 1.001–1.889, p = 0.049). Nevertheless, no mortality risk factor could be identified. Conclusion: The mortality rate of patients with chlorpyrifos intoxication was 15.0%. Furthermore, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome, and delayed neuropathy developed in 100.0%, 12.5%, and 0% of patients, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1291-1300
Number of pages10
JournalHuman and Experimental Toxicology
Volume39
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 01 10 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.

Keywords

  • Chlorpyrifos
  • acute cholinergic crisis
  • delayed neuropathy
  • intermediate syndrome
  • intoxication
  • mortality

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