Patient satisfaction and quality of life after orthodontic treatment for cleft lip and palate deformity

Yi Hsuan Chen, Yu Fang Liao*, Chun Shin Chang, Ting Chen Lu, Kuo Ting Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Article peer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objectives: Patients with cleft lip–cleft palate (CLP) often require orthodontic treatment, with or without orthognathic surgery. Patient satisfaction is the most important outcome parameter in orthodontic treatment. This study aimed to (1) determine patient satisfaction and quality of life (QoL) after orthodontic treatment and (2) identify associated factors. Material and methods: This prospective cross-sectional study recruited patients with CLP who had completed orthodontic treatment at a craniofacial center in Taiwan. Participants (N=213) had received treatment for unilateral CLP (n=99), bilateral CLP (n=50), cleft lip and alveolus (n=39), and isolated cleft palate (n=25). Self-report questionnaires evaluated satisfaction with appearance and QoL; multiple regression analysis examined associated factors. Participants’ expectations of treatment results were also reported. Results: Participants reported moderate satisfaction with facial appearance and QoL. Satisfaction with treatment was lower or much lower than expected for 13% of participants. Treatment for bilateral CLP was associated with the lowest satisfaction with overall appearance (r = −8.123, P < 0.05); participants who had received orthognathic surgery had the highest satisfaction (r = 5.534, P < 0.05). Treatment for unilateral and bilateral CLP was associated with low QoL for smile (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Orthodontic treatment had a positive effect on facial appearance and quality of life in patients with CLP. Type of cleft and orthognathic surgery significantly influenced satisfaction with facial appearance. Clinical relevance: Efforts must be taken to modify treatment strategies for patients with bilateral CLP in order to improve satisfaction with appearance following treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5521-5529
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Issue number9
StatePublished - 09 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Body image
  • Cleft
  • Orthodontic
  • Orthognathic surgery (OGS)
  • Quality of life
  • Satisfaction


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